The research work
The research work is the largest component of the PhD education, and the standard length is 2.5 years of work (150 credits).
The thesis work is to be done under individual supervision. At the same time, the thesis must be an independent academic work that meets international standards with respect to ethical requirements, scientific level and methodology in the programme field. It shall help develop new academic knowledge and have a level of quality that will qualify for publication as part of the discipline's scientific literature.
The thesis can be written as a monograph or as an article-based compilation thesis with a summary (kappa) that shows the connection between the articles.
For more information on the thesis component, see the programme description for the relevant PhD study.