Jacob Clement Yde

Jacob Clement Yde
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HB, H-1048

Field of work

Research interests:

- Glaciology and glacial geology
- Glacier biogeochemistry and microbiology
- Surge-type glaciers
- Climate change and palaeoclimatic reconstruction

Education and positions:

2017 – present: Professor, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
2016 – 2016: Professor, Sogn og Fjordane University College, Norway.
2011 – 2016: Associate Professor, Sogn og Fjordane University College, Norway.
2008 – 2010: Post-doctorate, Center for Geomicrobiology, University of Aarhus, Denmark. 
2008 – 2010: Guest researcher, Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, University of Bergen, Norway.
2007 – 2008: Adjunct in Physical Geography, Bjerringbro Gymnasium, Denmark.
2004 – 2007: PhD student in geology with speciality in glaciology, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Aarhus, Denmark.

Editorial positions:

2018 – present: Review Editor for the Geochemistry section of Frontiers in Chemistry and Earth Science.
2012 – present: Associate Editor for Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research.
2016 – 2018: Guest Editor for Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research for the special issue “Environmental change and impacts in the Kangerlussuaq area, West Greenland”.
2014 – 2016: Guest Associate Editor for Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface for the special issue “Glacier surging and ice streaming”.

Workshop organization:

2017: Organizer of the 3rd Kangerlussuaq International Research Network Workshop, Fjærland, Norway.
2012: Organizer of the ESF Exploratory Workshop on Geomicrobiology in Glacial Systems, Sogndal, Norway.

Peer-reviewed publications:

[69] Carrivick, J.L., Andreassen, L.M., Nesje, A. and Yde, J.C. 2022. A reconstruction of Jostedalsbreen during the Little Ice Age and geometric changes to outlet glaciers since then. Quaternary Science Reviews, 284, 107501.

[68] Stachnik, L., Yde, J.C., Krzemień, K., Uzarowicz, Ł., Sitek, S. and Kenis, P. 2022. SEM-EDS and water chemistry characteristics at the early stages of glacier recession reveal biogeochemical coupling between proglacial sediments and meltwater. Science of the Total Environment, 835, 155383.

[67] Hodson, A.J. and Yde, J.C. 2022. The geochemistry of glacial meltwaters. In Shroder, J.F. (ed.): Treatise on geomorphology, second edition, volume 4. Elsevier, Academic Press, 290-304.

[66] Vinsová, P., Kohler, T.J., Simpson, M.J., Hajdas, I., Yde, J.C., Falteisek, L., Zárský, J.D., Yuan, T., Tejnecký, V., Mercl, F., Hood, E. Hatton, J.E. and Stibal, M. 2022. The biogeochemical legacy of Arctic subglacial sediments exposed by glacier retreat. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 36, e2021GB007126 (24 pages).

[65] Li, X., Wang, N., Ding, Y., Hawkings, J.R., Yde, J.C., Raiswell, R., Liu, J., Zhang, S., Kang, S., Wang, R., Liu, Q., Liu, S., Bol., R., You, X. and Li, G. 2022 Globally elevated chemical weathering rates beneath glaciers. Nature Communications, 13:407, doi:10.1038/s41467-022-28032-1 (13 pages).

[64] Rozwalak, P., Podkowa, P., Buda, J., Niedzielski, P., Kawecki, S., Ambrosini, R., Azzoni, R.S., Baccolo, G., Ceballos, J.L., Cook, J., Di Mauro, B., Ficetola, G.F., Franzetti, A., Ignatiuk, P.D., Klimaszyk, P., Łokas, E., Ono, M., Parnikoza, I., Pietryka, M., Pittino, F., Poniecka, E., Porazinska, D.L., Richter, D., Schmidt, S.K., Sommers, P., Souza-Kasprzyk, J., Stibal, M., Szczuciński, W., Uetake, J., Wejnerowski, Ł., Yde, J., Takeuchi N. and Zawierucha, K. 2022. Cryoconite – from minerals and organic matter to bioengineered sediments on glacier’s surfaces. Science of the Total Environment, 807, 150874.

[63] Kohler, T.J., Vinsova, P., Falteisek, L., Zarsky, J.D., Yde, J.C., Hatton, J.E., Hawkings, J., Lamarche-Gagnon, G., Hood, E., Cameron, K.A. and Stibal, M. 2020. Patterns in microbial assemblages exported from the meltwater of Arctic and sub-Arctic glaciers. Frontiers in Microbiology, 11:669, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.00669 (18 pages).

[62] Urra, A., Wadham, J., Hawkings, J.R., Telling, J., Hatton, J.E., Yde, J.C., Hasholt, B., van As, B., Bhatia, M.P. and Nienow, P. 2019. Weathering dynamics under contrasting Greenland Ice Sheet catchments. Frontiers in Earth Science, 7:299, doi:10.3389/feart.2019.00299 (15 pages).

[61] Hatton, J.E., Hendry, K.R., Hawkings, J.R., Wadham, J.L., Opfergelt, S., Kohler, T.J., Yde, J.C., Stibal, M. and Zarsky, J.D. 2019. Silicon isotopes in Arctic and sub-Arctic glacial meltwaters: the role of subglacial weathering in the silicon cycle. Proceedings of the Royal Society A, 475, 20190098 (27 pages).

[60] Saros, J.E., Anderson, N.J., Juggins, S., McGowan, S., Yde, J.C., Telling, J., Bullard, J.E., Yallop, M.L., Heathcote, A.J., Burpee, B.T., Fowler, R.A., Barry, C.D., Northington, R.M., Osburn, C.L., Pla-Rabes, S., Mernild, S.H., Whiteford, E.J., Andrews, M.G., Kerby, J.T. and Post, E. 2019. Arctic climate shifts drive rapid ecosystem responses across the West Greenland landscape. Environmental Research Letters, 14, 074027 (11 pages).

[59] Stachnik, Ł., Yde, J.C., Nawrot, A., Uzarowicz, Ł., Łepkowska, E. and Kozak, K. 2019. Aluminium in glacial meltwater demonstrates an association with nutrient export (Werenskiöldbreen, Svalbard). Hydrological Processes, 33(12), 1638-1657.

[58] Yde, J.C., Zarsky, J.D., Kohler, T.J., Knudsen, N.T., Gillespie, M.K. and Stibal, M. 2019. Kuannersuit Glacier revisited: Constraining ice dynamics, landform formations and glaciomorphological changes in the early quiescent phase following the 1995-98 surge event. Geomorphology, 330, 89-99.

[57] Mernild, S.H., Liston, G.E., Hiemstra, C.A., Yde, J.C. and Casassa, G. 2018. Annual river runoff variations and trends for the Andes Cordillera. Journal of Hydrometeorology, 19(7), 1167-1189.

[56] Zarsky, J.D., Kohler, T.J., Yde, J.C., Faiteisek, L., Lamarche-Gagnon, G., Hawkings, J.R., Hatton, J.E. and Stibal, M. 2018. Prokaryotic assemblages in suspended and subglacial sediments within a glacierized catchment on Qeqertarsuaq (Disko Island), west Greenland. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 94(7), fiy100, doi:10.1093/femsec/fiy100 (10 pages). 

[55] Mateos-Rivera, A., Øvreås, L., Wilson, B., Yde, J.C. and Finster, K.W. 2018. Activity and diversity of methane-oxidizing bacteria along a Norwegian sub-Arctic glacier forefield. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 94(5), fiy059, doi:10.1993/femsec/fiy059 (11 pages).

[54] Hasholt, B., van As, D., Mikkelsen, A.B., Mernild, S.H. and Yde, J.C. 2018. Observed sediment and solute transport from the Kangerlussuaq sector of the Greenland Ice Sheet (2006-2016). Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 50(1), S100009 (13 pages).

[53] Mernild, S.H., Liston, G., van As, D., Hasholt, B. and Yde, J.C. 2018. High-resolution ice sheet surface mass-balance and spatiotemporal runoff simulations: Kangerlussuaq, west Greenland. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 50(1), S100008 (21 pages).

[52] Carrivick, J.L., Yde, J.C., Knudsen, N.T. and Kronborg, C. 2018. Ice-dammed lake and ice margin evolution during the Holocene in the Kangerlussuaq area of west Greenland. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 50(1), S100005 (11 pages).

[51] Yde, J.C., Anderson, N.J., Post, E., Saros, J.E. and Telling, J. 2018. Environmental change and impacts in the Kangerlussuaq area, west Greenland. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 50(1), S100001 (6 pages).

[50] Lovell, H., Benn, D.I., Lukas, S., Spagnolo, M., Cook, S.J., Swift, D.A., Clark, C.D., Yde, J.C. and Watts, T. 2018. Geomorphological investigation of multiphase glacitectonic composite ridge systems in Svalbard. Geomorphology, 300, 176-188.

[49] Mernild, S.H., Beckerman, A.P., Knudsen, N.T., Hasholt, B. and Yde, J.C. 2018. Statistical EOF analysis of spatiotemporal glacier mass-balance variability: a case study of Mittivakkat Gletscher, SE Greenland. Danish Journal of Geography, 118(1), 1-16.

[48] Carrivick, J.L., Tweed, F.S., Ng, F., Quincey, D.J., Mallalieu, J., Ingeman-Nielsen, T., Mikkelsen, A.B., Palmer, S.J., Yde, J.C., Homer, R., Russell, A.J. and Hubbard, A. 2017. Ice-dammed lake drainage evolution at Russell Glacier, west Greenland. Frontiers in Earth Science, 5:100, doi: 10.3389/feart.2017.00100 (16 pages).

[47] Kohler, T.J., Žarsky, J.D., Yde, J.C., Lamarche-Gagnon, G., Hawkings, J.R., Tedstone, A.J., Wadham, J.L., Box, J.E., Beaton, A.D. and Stibal, M. 2017. Carbon dating reveals a seasonal progression in the source of particulate organic carbon exported from the Greenland Ice Sheet. Geophysical Research Letters, 44(12), 6209-6217.

[46] Hanna, E., Mernild, S.H., Yde, J.C. and de Villiers, S. 2017. Surface air temperature fluctuations and lapse rates on Olivares Gamma Glacier, Rio Olivares basin, central Chile, from a novel meteorological sensor network. Advances in Meteorology, Article ID 6581537, 15 pages.

[45] Carrivick, J.L., Yde, J., Russell, A.J., Quincey, D.J., Ingeman-Nielsen, T. and Mallalieu, J. 2017. Ice-margin and meltwater dynamics during the mid-Holocene in the Kangerlussuaq area of west Greenland. Boreas, 46(3), 369-387.

[44] Mernild, S.H., Liston, G., Hiemstra, C., Beckerman, A.P., Yde, J.C. and McPhee, J. 2017. The Andes Cordillera. Part IV: spatio-temporal freshwater run-off distribution to adjacent seas (1979-2014). International Journal of Climatology, 37(7), 3175-3196.

[43] Mernild, S.H., Liston, G.E., Hiemstra, C.A., Yde, J.C., McPhee, J. and Malmros, J.K. 2017. The Andes Cordillera. Part II: Olivares Basin snow conditions (1979-2014), central Chile. International Journal of Climatology, 37(4), 1699-1715.

[42] Mernild, S.H., Liston, G.E., Hiemstra, C.A., Malmros, J.K., Yde, J.C. and McPhee, J. 2017. The Andes Cordillera. Part I: snow distribution, properties, and trends (1979-2014). International Journal of Climatology, 37(4), 1680-1698.

[41] Anderson, N.J., Saros, J.E., Bullard, J.E., Cahoon, S.M.P., McGowan, S., Bagshaw, E.A., Barry, C.D., Bindler, R., Burpee, B.T., Carrivick, J.L., Fowler, R.A., Fox, A.D., Fritz, S.C., Giles, M.E., Hamerlik, L., Ingeman-Nielsen, T., Law, A.C., Mernild, S.H., Northington, R.M., Osburn, C.L., Pla-Rabès, S., Post, E., Telling, J., Stroud, D.A., Whiteford, E.J., Yallop, M.L. and Yde, J.C. 2017. The Arctic in the twenty-first century: Changing biogeochemical linkages across a paraglacial landscape of Greenland. BioScience, 67(2), 118-133.

[40] Stachnik, Ł., Yde, J.C., Kondracka, M., Ignatiuk, D. and Grzesik, M. 2016. Glacier naled evolution and relation to the subglacial drainage system based on water chemistry and GPR surveys (Werenskioldbreen, SW Svalbard). Annals of Glaciology, 57(72), 19-30.

[39] Meire, L., Meire, P., Struyf, E., Krawczyk, D.W., Arendt, K.E., Yde, J.C., Juul Pedersen, T., Hopwood, M.J., Rysgaard, S. and Meysman, F.J.R. 2016. High export of dissolved silica from the Greenland Ice Sheet. Geophysical Research Letters, 43(17), 9173-9182.

[38] Malmros, J.K., Mernild, S.H., Wilson, R., Yde, J.C. and Fensholt, R. 2016. Glacier area changes in the central Chilean and Argentinean Andes 1955-2013/14. Journal of Glaciology, 62(232), 391-401.

[37] Stachnik, Ł., Majchrowska, E., Yde, J.C., Nawrot, A.P., Cichała-Kamrowska, K., Ignatiuk, D. and Piechota, A. 2016. Chemical denudation and the role of sulfide oxidation at Werenskioldbreen, Svalbard. Journal of Hydrology, 538, 177-193.

[36] Yde, J.C., Knudsen, N.T., Steffensen, J.P., Carrivick, J.L., Hasholt, B., Ingeman-Nielsen, T., Kronborg, C., Larsen, N.K., Mernild, S.H., Oerter, H., Roberts, D.H. and Russell, A.J. 2016. Stable oxygen isotope variability in two contrasting glacier river catchments in Greenland. Hydrology and Earth System Science, 20(3), 1197-1210.

[35] Mateos-Rivera, A., Yde, J.C., Wilson, B., Finster, K.W., Reigstad, L.J. and Øvreås, L. 2016. The effect of temperature change on the microbial diversity and community structure along the chronosequence of the sub-arctic glacier forefield of Styggedalsbreen (Norway). FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 92(4), fiw038, doi:10.1093/femsec/fiw038 (13 pages).

[34] Mernild, S.H., Beckerman, A.P., Yde, J.C., Hanna, E., Malmros, J.K., Wilson, R., and Zemp, M. 2015. Mass loss and imbalance of glaciers along the Andes Cordillera to the sub-Antarctic islands. Global and Planetary Change, 133, 109-119.

[33] Mernild, S.H., Malmros, J.K., Yde, J.C., Wilson, R., Knudsen, N.T., Hanna, E., Fausto, R.S., and van As, D. 2015. Albedo decline on Greenland's Mittivakkat Gletscher in a warming climate. International Journal of Climatology, 35(9), 2294-2307.

[32] Mernild, S.H., Holland, D.M., Holland, D., Rosing-Asvid, A., Yde, J.C., Liston, G.E. and Steffen, K. 2015. Freshwater flux and spatiotemporal simulated runoff variability into Ilulissat Icefjord, West Greenland, linked to salinity and temperature observations near tidewater glacier margins obtained using instrumented ringed seals. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 45(5), 1426-1445.

[31] Mernild, S.H., Malmros, J.K., Yde, J.C., de Villiers, S., Knudsen, N.T., and Wilson, R. 2015. Glacier changes in the circumpolar Arctic and sub-Arctic, mid-1980s to late-2000s/2011. Danish Journal of Geography, 115(1), 39-56.

[30] Mernild, S.H., Hanna, E., McConnell, J.R., Sigl, M., Beckerman, A.P., Yde, J.C., Cappelen, J., Malmros, J.K. and Steffen, K. 2015. Greenland precipitation trends in a long-term instrumental climate context (1890-2012): evaluation of coastal and ice core records. International Journal of Climatology, 35(2), 303-320.

[29] Yde, J.C., Gillespie, M.K., Løland, R., Ruud, H., Mernild, S.H., de Villiers, S., Knudsen, N.T. and Malmros, J.K. 2014. Volume measurements of Mittivakkat Gletscher, southeast Greenland. Journal of Glaciology, 60(224), 1199-1207.

[28] Mernild, S.H., Hanna, E., Yde, J.C., Seidenkrantz, M.-S., Wilson, R. and Knudsen, N.T. 2014. Atmospheric and oceanic influence on mass balance of northern North Atlantic region land-terminating glaciers. Geografiska Annaler, 96A(4), 561-577.

[27] Yde, J.C., Knudsen, N.T., Hasholt, B. and Mikkelsen, A.B. 2014. Meltwater chemistry and solute export from a Greenland Ice Sheet catchment, Watson River, West Greenland. Journal of Hydrology, 519, 2165-2179.

[26] Stachnik, Ł., Wałach, P., Uzarowicz, Ł., Yde, J.C., Tosheva, Z. and Wrońska-Wałach, D. 2014. Water chemistry and hydrometeorology in a glacierized catchment in the Polar Urals, Russia. Journal of Mountain Science, 11(5), 1097-1111.

[25] Mernild, S.H., Hanna, E., Yde, J.C., Cappelen, J. and Malmros, J.K. 2014. Coastal Greenland air temperature extremes and trends 1890-2010: annual and monthly analysis. International Journal of Climatology, 34(5), 1472-1487.

[24] Mernild, S.H., Pelto, M., Malmros, J.K., Yde, J.C., Knudsen, N.T. and Hanna, E. 2013. Identification of snow ablation rate, ELA, AAR and net mass balance using transient snowline variations on two Arctic glaciers. Journal of Glaciology, 59(216), 649-659.

[23] Mernild, S.H., Knudsen, N.T., Hoffman, M.J., Yde, J.C., Hanna, E., Lipscomb, W.H., Malmros, J.K. and Fausto, R.S. 2013. Volume and velocity changes at Mittivakkat Gletscher, southeast Greenland. Journal of Glaciology, 59(216), 660-670.

[22] Kristiansen, S.M., Yde, J.C., Bárcena, T.G., Jakobsen, B.H., Olsen, J. and Knudsen, N.T. 2013. Geochemistry of groundwater in front of a warm-based glacier in Southeast Greenland. Geografiska Annaler, 95A(2), 97–108.

[21] Mernild, S.H., Yde, J.C., Malmros, J.K. and Knudsen, N.T. 2013. Land-terminating glacier volume changes in different Circum-Arctic areas, mid-1980s to late-2000s/2011. Danish Journal of Geography, 113(1), 65–70.

[20] Carrivick, J.L., Turner, A.G.D., Russell, A.J., Ingeman-Nielsen, T. and Yde, J.C. 2013. Outburst flood evolution at Russell Glacier, western Greenland: effects of a bedrock channel cascade with intermediary lakes. Quaternary Science Reviews, 67, 39-58.

[19] Mernild, S.H., Malmros, J.K., Yde, J.C. and Knudsen, N.T. 2012. Multi-decadal marine- and land-terminating glacier recession in the Ammassalik region, southeast Greenland. The Cryosphere, 6, 625-639.

[18] Yde, J.C., Hodson, A.J., Solovjanova, I., Steffensen, J.P., Nørnberg, P., Heinemeier, J. and Olsen, J. 2012. Chemical and isotopic characteristics of a glacier-derived naled in front of Austre Grønfjordbreen, Svalbard. Polar Research, 31, 17628, doi:10.3402/polar.v31i0.17628.

[17] Bárcena, T.G., Finster, K.W. and Yde, J.C. 2011. Spatial patterns of soil development, methane oxidation, and methanotrophic diversity along a receding glacier forefield, Southeast Greenland. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research, 43(2), 178-188.

[16] Russell, A.J., Carrivick, J.L., Ingeman-Nielsen, T., Yde, J.C. and Williams, M. 2011. A new cycle of jökulhlaups at Russell Glacier, Kangerlussuaq, West Greenland. Journal of Glaciology, 57(202), 238-246. 

[15] Mernild, S.H., Knudsen, N.T., Lipscomb, W.H., Yde, J.C., Malmros, J.K., Hasholt, B. and Jakobsen, B.H. 2011. Increasing mass loss from Greenland's Mittivakkat Gletscher. The Cryosphere, 5, 341-348.

[14] Yde, J.C., Finster, K.W., Raiswell, R., Steffensen, J.P., Heinemeier, J., Olsen, J., Gunnlaugsson, H.P. and Nielsen, O.B. 2010. Basal ice microbiology at the margin of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Annals of Glaciology, 51(56), 71–79.

[13] Bárcena, T.G., Yde, J.C. and Finster, K.W. 2010. Methane flux and high-affinity methanotrophic diversity along the chronosequence of a receding glacier in Greenland. Annals of Glaciology, 51(56), 23–31.

[12] Yde, J.C. and Paasche, Ø. 2010. Reconstructing climate changes: Not all glaciers suitable. EOS, 91(21), 189–190.

[11] Larsen, N.K., Kronborg, C., Yde, J.C. and Knudsen, N.T. 2010. Debris entrainment by basal freeze-on and thrusting during the 1995-98 surge of Kuannersuit Glacier on Disko Island, West Greenland. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 35(5), 561–574.

[10] Roberts, D.H., Yde, J.C., Knudsen, N.T., Long, A.J. and Lloyd, J.M. 2009. Ice marginal dynamics and sediment delivery mechanisms during surge activity, Kuannersuit Glacier, Disko Island, West Greenland. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28, 209–222.

[9] Yde, J.C., Riger-Kusk, M., Christiansen, H.H., Knudsen, N.T. and Humlum, O. 2008. Hydrochemical characteristics of bulk meltwater from an entire ablation season, Longyearbreen, Svalbard. Journal of Glaciology, 54(185), 259–272.

[8] Knudsen, N.T., Nørnberg, P., Yde, J.C., Hasholt, B. and Heinemeier, J. 2008. Recent glacier marginal changes and finds of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), ringed seal (Phoca hispada) and peaty material at Mittivakkat Glacier, South East Greenland. Danish Journal of Geography, 108(1), 137–142.

[7] Yde, J.C. and Knudsen, N.T. 2007. 20th-century glacier fluctuations on Disko Island (Qeqertarsuaq), Greenland. Annals of Glaciology, 46, 209–214.

[6] Knudsen, N.T., Yde, J.C. and Gasser, G. 2007. Suspended sediment transport in glacial meltwater during the initial quiescent phase after a major surge event at Kuannersuit Glacier, Greenland. Danish Journal of Geography, 107(1), 1–7.

[5] Yde, J.C. and Knudsen, N.T. 2005. Observations of debris-rich naled associated with a major glacier surge event, Disko Island, West Greenland. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 16, 319–325.

[4] Yde, J.C. and Knudsen, N.T. 2005. Glaciological features in the initial quiescent phase of Kuannersuit Glacier, Greenland. Geografiska Annaler, 87A(3), 473–485.

[3] Yde, J.C., Knudsen, N.T., Larsen, N.K., Kronborg, C., Nielsen, O.B., Heinemeier, J. and Olsen, J. 2005. The presence of thrust-block naled after a major surge event: Kuannersuit Glacier, West Greenland. Annals of Glaciology, 42, 145–150.

[2] Yde, J.C., Knudsen, N.T. and Nielsen, O.B. 2005. Glacier hydrochemistry, solute provenance, and chemical denudation at a surge-type glacier in Kuannersuit Kuussuat, Disko Island, West Greenland. Journal of Hydrology, 300(1/4), 172–187.

[1] Yde, J.C. and Knudsen, N.T. 2004. The importance of oxygen isotope provenance in relation to solute content of bulk meltwaters at Imersuaq Glacier, West Greenland. Hydrological Processes, 18(1), 125–139.

Book sections:

[e] Yde, J.C., Bárcena, T.G. and Finster, K.W. 2011. Subglacial and proglacial ecosystem responses to climate change. In Blanco, J.A. and Kheradmand, K. (editors): Climate Change - Geophysical Foundations and Ecological Effects. InTech, 459-478.

[d] Yde, J.C. 2011. Greenland glaciers outside the ice sheet. In Singh, V.P., Singh, P. and Haritashya, U.K. (editors): Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers. Springer, 478-484.

[c] Yde, J.C. 2011. Hydrochemical characteristics of snow, ice, and glaciers. In Singh, V.P., Singh, P. and Haritashya, U.K. (editors): Encyclopedia of Snow, Ice and Glaciers. Springer, 530-533.

[b] Yde, J.C. and Knudsen, N.T. 2009. Surge-type glaciers on Disko Island, Greenland. In Krugger, M.I. and Stern, H.P. (editors): New Permafrost and Glacier Research. Nova Publishers, 283–297.

[a] Yde, J.C. 2009. Periglacial landforms and processes on Disko Island, Greenland. In Krugger, M.I. and Stern, H.P. (editors): New Permafrost and Glacier Research. Nova Publishers, 131–145.