Tunnel Fire Safety

Tunnel fires are a serious threat to human life and can also have severe economic consequences.

We build knowledge to understand and mitigate the tunnel fires and its consequences.

Some of our principal research areas are: 

  •  Understanding fires in tunnels through experimentation and numerical simulations
  • Evacuation modeling to formulate optimum evacuation strategies for different fire scenarios
  • Applications of newer technologies to make tunnels secure from fires
  •  Social and economic implications of tunnel fires
  • Tunnel fire risk prevention and mitigation

Head of Research Group


  • Hu, X. Numerical study of the effects of ventilation velocity on peak heat release rate and the confinement velocity in large tunnel fires. Safety Science, 2021, 142, 105359, 1-6.

  • Knapstad, T.; Njå, O. The Concept of Learning in Virtual Reality in the Context of Tunnel Fire Evacuation Knowledge. Proc. 29th Eur. Safety Reliability Conf. (ESREL), 2021, 557, 1-8.

  • Khattri, S.K.; Log, T.; Kraaijeveld, A. A novel representation of the critical ventilation velocity for mitigating tunnel fires, Tunnelling Undergr. Space Techn., 2021, 112, 103853, 1-10.

  • Knapstad, T.; Sommer, M.; Abrahamsen, E.B. Mindsets of Risk Acceptance in the Light of Vision Zero and Tunnel Safety, Proc. 29th Eur. Safety Reliability Conf. (ESREL), 2020, 3994, 3869-3876.

  • Khattri, S.K.; Log, T.; Kraaijeveld, A. Tunnel Fire Dynamics as a Function of Longitudinal Ventilation Air Oxygen Content", Sustainability, 2019, 11(1), 203, 1-13.

  • Knapstad, T.; Sommer, M.; Njå, O. The Communication of Vision Zero Values in Tunnel Safety Management, Proc. 29th Eur. Safety Reliability Conf. (ESREL), 2019, 1077, 3009-3016.

  • Khattri, S.K. From small-scale tunnel fire simulations to predicting fire dynamics in realistic tunnels, Tunnelling Undergr. Space Techn., 2017, 61, 198-204.