Fire Disasters

Industrial major accidents have been in focus for years, and still must be in focus. The increasing civil sector fire risk, as a result of climate changes, succession and increasing population in the Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI), has been less understood and less focused. Such fires have recently led to disasters, not only abroad, but also in Norway.

Fire disasters in e.g. Australia, Canada, USA and the Mediterranean area represent an increasing international challenge. The worst of these recent fires, in Greece July 2018, resulted in loss of 100 lives, mostly children and retirees. Vulnerable people become even more risk exposed in fire disasters.

We have also recently experienced an increase in the number of severe fires in Norway. The fires in Lærdalsøyri and Flatanger January 2014 both resulted in the highest number of lost buildings in Norway since 1923. These fires were reminders of how vulnerable, and unprepared, the modern Norway is with respect to fire disasters. During the 2018 early summer drought, southern Norway was at an extreme fire risk, which went well due to low winds and proper helicopter firefighting resources. The April 2019 Sokndal wildfire, which resulted in over 400 evacuees and a last-minute hikers rescue by an emergency helicopter, demonstrated how exposed we are. The fire at Sotra June 2021, where buildings were damaged and lost, demonstrated how extreme such fires can be right now. Climate changes and succession indicate that we will be even more exposed in the future.

There is a need for a cross-disciplinary approach in order to understand the parameters leading towards fire disasters and how we can mitigate this risk. We shall develop knowledge about such fires, mitigating measures, methods for dynamic risk assessment and contribute to proactive contingency management for improved risk management. This will provide better safety for all groups at risk.

Good risk understanding is a prerequisite for proper mitigating measures and good emergency responses.

Ongoing research projects: 

Our ongoing research projects are linked to six main areas: Wooden buildings and dense wooden building environments, Wildland-Urban Interface (WUI), process industry, contingency management, emergency responders and volunteers, and skin burns. 

The largest research project is the 17.7 million NOK project "Reducing fire disaster risk through dynamic risk assessment and management (DYNAMIC)". DYNAMIC is supported by HVL, The Norwagian Research Council and partners. It includes two PhD fellows, one withing risk modeling and ICT, and one within Social Sciences.

Selected Publications

  • Strand, R.D.; Log, T. A Cold Climate Wooden Home and Conflagration Danger Index: Justification and Practicability for Norwegian Conditions. Fire 2023, 6, 377.

  • Gunnarshaug, A.; Log, T.; Metallinou, M.-M.; Skjold, T. Modelling breakdown of industrial thermal insulation during fire exposure. J. Loss Prevention in the Process Ind. 2023. 84(11), 105135.

  • Gjedrem, A.M.; Metallinou, M.-M. Wildland-urban interface fires in Norwegian coastal heathlands – Identifying risk reducing measures. Safety Sci. 2023, 159, 106032.

  • Log, T.; Gjedrem, A.M.; Metallinou, M.-M. Virtually Fenced Goats for Grazing Fire Prone Juniper in Coastal Norway Wildland–Urban Interface. Fire 20225(6), 188. 

  • Log, T.; Gunnarshaug, A. Analysis of a Costly Fiberglass-Polyester Air Filter Fire. Energies 202215(20), 7719. 

  • Strand, R.D.; Petrucci, L.; Kristensen, L.M. Formal Specification and Validation of a Data-driven Software System for Fire Risk Prediction. Petri Nets and Software Engineering 20223170, 1-20. 

  • Log, T.; Gjedrem, A.M. A Fire Revealing Coastal Norway’s Wildland–Urban Interface Challenges and Possible Low-Cost Sustainable Solutions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(5), 303.

  • Davies, G.M.; Vandvik, V.; Marrs, R.; Velle, L.G. Fire management in heather-dominated heaths and moorlands of north-west Europe, in Global Application of Prescribed Fire, Weir, J.R. & Scasta, D. Eds. CRC Press, 2022, 194-229. ISBN 9781032137179.

  • Wijkmark, C.H.; Heldal, I.; Metallinou, M.M. Can Remote Virtual Simulation Improve Practice-Based Training? Presence and Performance in Incident Commander Education, Presence–Virtual Augm. Reality, 2022, 28, 127–152.

  • Strand, R.D.; Stokkenes, S.; Kristensen, L.M.; Log, T. Fire Risk Prediction Using Cloud-based Weather Data Services. J. Ubiquitous Syst. Pervasive Networks, 2022, 16(1), 37-47. 

  • Kristoffersen, M.; Log, T. Experience gained from 15 years of fire protection plans for Nordic wooden towns in Norway. Safety Sci. 2022, 146, 105535, 1-16. 

  • Log, T. Analysis of Expected Skin Burns from Accepted Process Flare Heat Radiation Levels to Public Passersby. Energies 202114(17), 5474, 1-16.

  • Gunnarshaug, A.; Metallinou, M.-M.; Log, T. Industrial Thermal Insulation Properties above Sintering Temperatures. Materials 202114, 4721, 1-24.

  • Wijkmark, C.H.; Metallinou, M.M.; Heldal, I. Remote Virtual Simulation for Incident Commanders - Cognitive Aspects. Appl. Sci. 202111, 6434, 1-19.

  • Wijkmark, C.H.; Heldal, I.; Metallinou, M.M. Experiencing Immersive VR Simulation for Firefighter Skills Training, Proc. 18th Int. Conf. on Info. Systems for Crisis Response and Mgmt, ISCRAM 2021, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA, 23-26 May 2021, 2383, 913-921.

  • Stokkenes, S.; Strand, R.D.; Kristensen, L.M.; Log, T. Validation of a Predictive Fire Risk Indication Model using Cloud-based Weather Data Services. Procedia Computer Science 2021184, 186-193.

  • Gjedrem, A.M.; Log, T. Study of Heathland Succession, Prescribed Burning, and Future Perspectives at Kringsjå, Norway. Land20209(12), 485, 1-28.

  • Gunnarshaug, A.; Metallinou, M.M.; Log, T. Study of Industrial Grade Thermal Insulation at Elevated Temperatures, Materials202013, 4613, 1-16.

  • Metallinou, M.M. Emergence of and Learning Processes in a Civic Group Resuming Prescribed Burning in Norway, Sustainability202012(14), 5668, 1-21.

  • Log, T. Modeling Drying of Degenerated Calluna vulgaris for Wildfire and Prescribed Burning Risk Assessment, Forests202011(7), 759, 1-18. 

  • Hu, X.; Kraaijeveld, A.; Log, T. Numerical Investigation of the Required Quantity of Inert Gas Agents in Fire Suppression Systems, Energies202013(19), 2536, 14 p.

  • Log, T.; Vandvik, V.; Velle, L.G.; Metallinou, M.M. Reducing Wooden Structure and Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Disaster Risk through Dynamic Risk Assessment and Management, Appl. Syst. Innov.20203(1), 16, 1-19 p.

  • Bakka, M.S.; Handal, E.K.; Log, T. Analysis of a High-Voltage Room Quasi-Smoke Gas Explosion, Energies202013(3), 621, 14 p.

  • Stokkenes, S.; Kristensen, L.M.; Log, T. Cloud-based Implementation and Validation of a Predictive Fire Risk Indication Model, NIK2019, 12 p.

  • Log, T. Modeling Indoor Relative Humidity and Wood Moisture Content as a Proxy for Wooden Home Fire Risk, Sensors201919(22), 5050, 22 p.

  • Log, T.; Thuestad, G.; Velle, L-G.; Khattri. S.K.; Kleppe, G. Unmanaged heathland - A fire risk in subzero temperatures?, Fire Safety J201790, 62-71.

  • Metallinou, M.M. Liquefied Natural Gas as a New Hazard; Learning Processes in Norwegian Fire Brigades, Safety20195(1), 11, 1-13.

  • Metallinou, M.M. Single- and double-loop organizational learning through a series of pipeline emergency exercises, J. Contingencies Crisis Manag., 201726, 530–543.

  • Mamen, A.; von Heimburg, E.D.; Oseland, H.; Medbø, J.I. Examination of a new functional firefighter fitness test. Int. J. Occupational Safety Ergonomics2019, 14 p.

  • Medbø, J.I.; Mamen, A.; Oseland, H.; von Heimburg, E.D. The steady-state load of five firefighting tasks, 2019, Int. J. Occupational Safety Ergonomics2019, 8 p.

  • Bjørge, S.B.; Bjørkheim, S.A.; Metallinou, M.M.; Log, T.; Frette, Ø. Influence of Acetone and Sodium Chloride Additives on Cooling Efficiency of Water Droplets Impinging onto Hot Metal Surfaces, Energies 201912, 2358. 16 p.

  • Bjørge, J.S.; Gunnarshaug, A.; Log, T.; Metallinou, M.M. Study of Industrial Grade Thermal Insulation as Passive Fire Protection up to 1200 °C", Safety20184(3), 41, 18 p.

  • Bjørge, J.S.; Metallinou, M.M.; Kraaijeveld, A.; Log, T. "Small Scale Hydrocarbon Fire Test Concept", Technologies20175(4), 72, 14 p.

  • Log, T.; Pedersen, W.P. A Common Risk Classification Concept for Safety Related Gas Leaks and Fugitive Emissions?, Energies201912(21), 4063, 17 p.

  • Log, T.; Pedersen, W.P.; Moumets, H. Optical Gas Imaging (OGI) as a Moderator for Interdisciplinary Cooperation, Reduced Emissions and Increased Safety, Energies201912(8), 1454, 13 p.

  • Log, T.; Moi, A.L. Ethanol and Methanol Burn Risks in the Home Environment, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health201815(10), 2379, 15 p.

  • Log, T. Skin temperatures of a pre-cooled wet person exposed to engulfing flames, Fire Safety J., 201789, 1-6

Head of Research Group:

bilde av Torgrim Log

Torgrim Log